Archive for July, 2010

Practicum Status Update Week 8

Thursday, July 22nd, 2010
  • Over the weekend, I’ve talked at the ChaosBBQ in Dortmund, Germany. A nice and small conferency gathering.
  • This week I had only a few bugs (that I reported):
  • The filter stuff is actually more complex than I initially thought: I do indeed have to handle async USB URBs which makes the code look more ugly and taste more like spaghetti. Anyway, the filter stuff should fully work now *yay*.

    I hope the video works. If it doesn’t, please download first. So we can replace packets on the fly, in and out. And of course, you could design a more complex scenario: Let the first read pass by unmodified but after that modify the packets.

  • Read a bit in “Essential Linux Device Drivers” which is an interesting to read book. I like the relaxed writing style. I haven’t gotten to the nitty gritty USB details yet though.
  • Wireshark can sniff USB communication, too. And it can save as a pcap file. And it dissects bits of the protocols. At least it shows the SCSI request for an USB Massstorage. I have to test whether it knows, say, webcams. First investigations show that it only supports USB Massstorage though. And it’d be interesting whether it can sniff the communication I’m filtering with QEmu.
  • Apparently, USB network magic for pcap is 0xdc:
    typedef struct pcap_hdr_s {
            guint32 magic_number;   /* magic number */
            guint16 version_major;  /* major version number */
            guint16 version_minor;  /* minor version number */
            gint32  thiszone;       /* GMT to local correction */
            guint32 sigfigs;        /* accuracy of timestamps */
            guint32 snaplen;        /* max length of captured packets, in octets */
            guint32 network;        /* data link type */
    } pcap_hdr_t;

    Wirehsark dumps the following:

    0000000: d4 c3 b2 a1 02 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  ................
    0000010: ff ff 00 00 dc 00 00 00 43 8e 44 4c d7 96 05 00  ........C.DL....

    So I might be able to implement saving to PCap at some stage.

  • Next week will be GUADEC! *yay* But that will also mean that I can’t work that much.
  • So my emulation seems to work now, too. I now need to speak the right protocol. So if you know a good resource that describes how a, say, USB Webcam behaves on the bus, drop me a line. Or anything that can dissect USB packets would be fine.

Chaos BBQ 2010

Tuesday, July 20th, 2010

Over the weekend, I had the opportunity to attend ChaosBBQ in Dortmund, Germany. It’s a small yet interesting gathering of hackers and it is a very relaxed conferency happening. With a BBQ ;-)

This years motto was “contruct, desctruct!” and I was more on the destructing side: I presented two topics: Security in Mobile Devices and a Magnetic Stripe Card workshop.

The Security in Mobile Devices talk went quite well and I think I encouraged people to start hacking their devices :) It’s funny though: I almost see blood coming out of the people ears when I go through the very technical part about buffer overflows. 2/3 seems to be bored or overwhelmed. The other 1/3 seems to be very interested and crave for more details. But I get everybody back when I have more pictures and videos about funny exploits and when I’m able to slander about Apple ;-) Again, I talked about a mixture of Hardware and Platform security and gave examples of previous hacks and how to actually start breaking your gadget.

The magnet card workshop was interesting, too. I presented how magnetic stripe technology actually works. And because we were curious hackers, we explored how it’s been used and how we can hack stuff. I told a few warstories that will hopefully be able to expand on in the future (although I don’t know whether DCU will like it ;-) ). Since it was more of a workshop, people contributed with technical details (thx to the guys from das Labor :-) ) or other interesting facts.

I had a nice weekend in Dortmund and I can recommend attending the ChaosBBQ if you’re looking for a tiny yet open gathering of interested geeks and hackers.

Practicum Status Update Week 7

Friday, July 16th, 2010
  • Read about Radare. Apparently, they have “USB support” but I could only see a USB communication sniffer. So Radare doesn’t dissect USB pakets :-(
  • Installed GDB from git, because the GDB in Fedora 13 crashes way too often. I didn’t file as many new bugs this week though ;-) I seem to have worked around all my crashers…
  • Fought a lot with git :( It’s incredibly hostile. I tried to rebase stuff and it keeps bugging me with old commits still being visible although I’ve changed them :( I probably haven’t understood what it does yet. Tried to fix as much as possible using git reflog. Of course, the man page references options (–verbose in my case) that are not existant. Brilliant. I don’t know why I actually expected git to help me.
    This is hilarious, too:

    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase setup_fds 
    First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it...
    Applying: Temporary migration to usb_packet_filter_setup_fds
    Using index info to reconstruct a base tree...
    Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge...
    Auto-merging usb-linux.c
    CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in usb-linux.c
    Failed to merge in the changes.
    Patch failed at 0001 Temporary migration to usb_packet_filter_setup_fds
    
    When you have resolved this problem run "git rebase --continue".
    If you would prefer to skip this patch, instead run "git rebase --skip".
    To restore the original branch and stop rebasing run "git rebase --abort".
    
    
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ nano usb-linux.c # hack hack hack
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git add usb-linux.c
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase --continue
    Applying: Temporary migration to usb_packet_filter_setup_fds
    No changes - did you forget to use 'git add'?
    
    When you have resolved this problem run "git rebase --continue".
    If you would prefer to skip this patch, instead run "git rebase --skip".
    To restore the original branch and stop rebasing run "git rebase --abort".
    
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ 
    

    WTF?!

    That one is brilliant, too:

    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase -i setup_fds
    # Stupid me: I selected "f" for the very first entry in that edit window
    Cannot 'fixup' without a previous commit
    # Fair enough, let me restart then:
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase setup_fds 
    Interactive rebase already started
    # O_o WTF? What else, besides aborting, could I possibly do anyway?!
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase --abort
    muelli@bigbox ~/git/qemu $ git rebase setup_fds 
    # Now it works...
    
  • Reimplemented host side USB filters to obtain valid USB communication. I have various simple filters: PassThrough, Logging and Replacing. The first one does nothing but return the data w/o any modification. The second one writes the bytes it reads and writes to files. The third one replaces 512 “A”s with 512 “B”s. Still need separate packets from the device in question to the host from packets from the host to the device to obtain valid device behaviour without reading all of the documentation. That will give me a good starting point to actually do the fuzzing.

    That replace filter produced interesting results. I replaced every “A” transmitted by a “B”. On the host, I created a file on a mass storage with 4KB “A”s. When “cat”ting the file from the guest, I saw “A”s. But copying the file in the guest resulted in the new file having all “B”s. I expected the “cat” showing all “B”s, too. And as far as I can see, the “A”s are actually replaced for the “cat”.

    Of course, Istanbul crashed while trying to make that screencast.
    Note that the filter code actually changed by now, not only because I enhanced the protocol (in the version you’re seeing, only USB payload is exchanged. In the new version, also the PID, device address and device endpoint are filtered) but also because I refactored the communication bits into a USBPacket class.
    I missed to show the pen drive from the host point of view after having copied the file in the guest, but the “bbbb” file is full of “B”s.

  • I’m on my way to emulating a USB device, i.e. make the guest think it has a USB device attached but the device is a program running on the guest. I basically copied the USB serial driver and the HID driver and modified them to get packets from a pipe and send them to a pipe. I had serious problems with QEmu: QEmu didn’t register my new “device”. Now I called the right function to initialize the USB device and voila, it attaches it like it should.
    Now I need to obtain valid USB communication using the filter so that I can respond to incoming packets properly.
  • Dear lazyweb, I’m wondering whether I could make my OS load an application but then break on main() so that I can attach a debugger. I cannot run the application *with* GDB. Instead, I want to attach a GDB after the program is fully loaded. Maybe LD_PRELOADing on main() will work?

Practicum Status Update Week 6

Friday, July 9th, 2010
  • So the plan is to modify a Linux driver to see results more easily (once the fuzzing part works). So I tried to get a working environment where I can boot my modified Linux kernel in. My problem being, that I don’t necessarily want to create initrds and somehow want the modules to be inside the guest machine. And I do want modules because I don’t want to boot after I’ve changed a tiny bit of the code. So I debootstrapped onto the filesystem on the host and tried to run Qemu with that directory as virtual FAT drive:
    sudo /opt/muelli/qemu/bin/qemu -monitor stdio -m 1G -kernel /opt/ubuntu/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic -initrd /opt/ubuntu/boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic -hda fat:ro:/opt/ubuntu/ -runas muelli
    But it fails because the directory is too big.
    I then debootstrapped into a fixed size container and for now I’m going with
    /opt/muelli/qemu/bin/qemu-system-x86_64 -m 1G -smp 1 -hda /opt/ubuntu.img -snapshot -kernel ~/git/linux-2.6/arch/x86_64/boot/bzImage -append ‘root=/dev/sda’
    But that doesn’t seem to work well, because the virtual machine just stops working. Attaching a debugger tells me that the qemu process basically stopped. Weird.
    I basically followed these instructions but in order to make Eclipse index my Linux Kernel, I had to start it with -vmargs -Xmx1024M.
    But debugging the kernel is a bit hard because something with the protocol is weird. The suggested fix doesn’t help.
  • QEmu wouldn’t install windows 7 x86_64, because of a “wrong CPU” type of error. Fortunately, the STOP codes are well documented. Trying to install it on x86 is not possible. I booted the ISO for two days without any success.
  • Found a good overview of USB classes per Windows Version. The USB classes themselves are not very well documented though. But in fairness, I haven’t read the 600+ pages spec yet.
  • Spent ages trying to make sscanf split a string on a colon. Jeez, it’s horrible. I even thought about doing a system("python -c 'mystring.split(':')'") or so… Ended up using strtok:
    if (((speedstr = strtok(copy, ":")) == NULL) || ((filterfilename = strtok(NULL, "\0")) == NULL)) {
    error_report();
    else {}
  • gdb attached to a process crashed from eclipse. GDB also likes to crash if the remote server went down.
    And listening to music with Rhythmbox is hard, too >.<
    QEmu crashes if given a wrong kernel image.
  • Found Patents related to fuzzing, but Zotero won’t import those to my library.
  • I had funny results with the filter: I replaced every “A” transmitted by a “B”. On the host, I created a file on a mass storage with 4KB “A”s. When “cat”ting the file from the guest, I saw “A”s. But copying the file in the guest resulted in the new file having all “B”s. I expected the “cat” showing all “B”s, too. And as far as I can see, the “A”s are actually replaced for the “cat”.

Practicum Status Update Week 5

Saturday, July 3rd, 2010
  • Implemented adding and removal of a filter. It works via the monitor or command line. And it does indeed seem to work:


    Sorry for that video being so poorly embedded in this wordpress instance. You might want to try to download the video directly.

    So yeah, we can potentially filter USB packets by now, which allows us in-place fuzzing. But that’s cumbersome because we need to have a device attached to the host. So the goal must be to be able to do USB communication without a device being attached to the host but with a program that emulates the USB device in question.

  • Of course I had problems to build Istanbul, the software I created the screencast with. Other stuff, including my IDE :-( just crashes, too…
  • I used qemu to pass a usb device through to the guest. Hence the Linux on the host detached the device. I desperately tried make Linux reattach the device. I tried to use ioctl() with USBDEVFS_CLAIMINTERFACE but it didn’t really work. After spending many hours, I just unplugged and replugged the pendrive…
    My code is pretty much

        int interface = atoi(argv[1]);
        fd = open("/dev/bus/usb/002/006", O_RDWR);
        result = ioctl(fd, USBDEVFS_RELEASEINTERFACE, &interface);
        //result = ioctl(fd, USBDEVFS_CLAIMINTERFACE, &interface);
        printf("Result: %d, errno: %d %s\n", result, errno, strerror(errno));
    

    and fails with Invalid Argument for RELEASE or for CLAIM with -EINVAL (Invalid Argument) or -ENOENT (No such file or directory). I have no idea what I am doing wrong. So if you do, please tell me :-P
    Oh, and these ioctls are not exported to Python I think. At least I couldn’t find the correct ioctl number for USBDEVFS_CLAIMINTERFACE without progamming a tiny C program to print it out for me.

  • Trying to test anything with QEmu is a pain though: It takes ages to boot anything with QEmu without KVM :( It takes literally a whole night to boot into an Ubuntu installation CD.
  • trying to work with a minimal operating system created by the following command on my Ubuntu box:
    sudo ubuntu-vm-builder kvm lucid --addpkg openssh-server --addpkg screen --addpkg acpid --addpkg htop --addpkg cheese --flavour generic
  • For the record: I build my QEmu with the following command ./configure --prefix=/opt/muelli/qemu/ --disable-strip --extra-cflags="-O0 -DDEBUG" --disable-docs --enable-io-thread --enable-attr --enable-kvm --disable-xen --target-list="i386-softmmu x86_64-softmmu" --enable-curses && make && make install