I’ve blogged before about mobile-friendly Mallard output. The HTML created by Yelp’s universal XSLT automatically adapts to small screen sizes in a number of ways, such as reducing extra borders and padding, dropping the number of columns used for certain link groups, and making links thumb-friendly. None of this is surprising to seasoned web developers, but for some reason we still don’t see a lot of it in technical communications and single-source publishing.
There’s a whole lot we can just do automatically when working with a working with a structured source format like Mallard or DocBook or DITA. Some things we can’t do without knowing the author’s intent, like removing non-essential screenshots. And for that, I’ve blogged before about using Mallard Conditionals to exclude images from mobile.
But what about those pesky code blocks? For decades, old farts have fought to keep lines of code under 80 characters. On common phones now, even 80 characters is too wide. You have more like 30 or 40 before you have to scroll horizontally.
Automatically reformatting code is probably outside the scope of good sense, but when API synopses are created dynamically, as with the API Mallard extension I’ve worked on, we can adjust the rendering fairly easily. Here’s a synopsis in a typical desktop browser:
Obviously, we can’t do much about a function name that’s just too long. But it’s fairly easy to make a synopsis which is at least somewhat readable on my phone. All of this is built into the tools and requires no extra work from authors.
When trying to run ‘make distcheck’ on gnome-user-docs, I got this error:
make: execvp: /bin/sh: Argument list too long
This roughly translates to “You have so much documentation translated into so many languages that your poor build system can’t handle it.” Congratulations to everybody involved in reaching this wonderful error.
Update: I’ve added a custom distdir target to yelp.m4 to fix this problem. If you maintain a package with a large document and a lot of translations (gnome-user-docs, ubuntu-docs), install yelp-tools 3.3.2 before making your next release. You may need to run ‘make distclean’ and rebuild completely to get the new build rules.
Last time, I gave a demo of a Mallard document rendered in a way that adapts to handheld devices like phones. Because Mallard is not a presentational language, most of the formatting can be adjusted automatically, and authors don’t have to worry about anything. But sometimes, you really do want to change the content when viewing on a handheld device.
First, though, let’s look at some specific formatting differences between desktop and mobile. For each of the pages below, click the ‘Desktop’ and ‘Mobile’ links above the iframe to see the difference.
- Desktop Help – The purely decorative hover previews are turned off for mobile. (Good luck hovering with your finger anyway.) Also, the three-column grid changes to a two-column grid.
- Delete files and folders – The notes and step lists use all the available horizontal space. The automatic links at the bottom fill the whole page width as well.
- Sound, video & pictures – The two-column link layout changes to a single column, and the link boxes span the entire page width, making them easier to tap.
But sometimes we add content that’s visually helpful on large screens, but cumbersome at small sizes. Things like screenshots are often nice to have, as long as they don’t get in the way. This is where conditional processing comes into play. I’ve been busy retooling Mallard conditional processing to allow things like this:
<media src="figures/shell-top-bar.png" if:test="!target:mobile"/>
The result is an image that’s only displayed in non-mobile reading environments. Switch between desktop and mobile on these pages to see it in action:
This isn’t limited to images, of course. You can use conditional processing on any block element or list item. What’s more, Mallard conditional processing allows full branching and fallback, giving you an easy way to display one thing for the desktop, and something else for mobile.
Don’t want to read? Skip to the Mobile Mallard demo.
As people use more and more mobile devices, it’s important that we can deliver help in a way that feels comfortable to users. It’s not just about help for mobile apps. Look at any book on documentation from the 80s or 90s and you’ll see an example about a field technician using documentation differently than an office worker. But now people are increasingy using phones and tablets to read documentation for everything, including devices in the world around them.
Mallard is already a natural choice for creating help to deliver on mobile platforms. Its focus on small, focused topics and its decidedly non-book-like navigation structure fit comfortably on a small screen, and its minimalist structured markup means you can easily adapt it to new needs without carrying a bunch of legacy baggage.
But the design we use for large, mouse-driven screens don’t always feel right on small, finger-driven devices. We use multi-column links that feel scrunched on small screens. We have purely decorative link previews on hover that you can’t even get to with your finger. We have margins and padding that are refreshing on large displays, but they just keep you from seeing more content on your phone. Luckily, Mallard doesn’t specify these kinds of presentation details, so we can make help that adapts to the form factor you’re viewing it on.
Check out the Mobile Mallard demo to see the initial work on making Mallard documents more suitable for mobile devices. This is still very early work, and it needs a lot of real-world testing. The next step is to use Mallard conditional processing to allow you to actually control what content is shown on mobile devices.
Know stuff about databases and SQL? Then we could use your help on the Knowledgebase for MariaDB. MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the popular MySQL database (now owned by Oracle). A top-notch database deserves top-notch documentation, and a community project needs contributors like you and me.
Getting involved is easy. Just create an account or log in with your existing OpenID account. Then pick a page and start editing. And don’t forget to keep in touch. Join the #maria channel on Freenode, and join the Maria Docs group and mailing list on Launchpad. Don’t forget to introduce yourself!
We’re working on getting a public TODO list online to make it easier to contribute. Until then, here’s a short list of things you can help with:
- CREATE TABLE
- Add a section about PRIMARY KEY. Include a brief description of what it does. Provide a reference for both the PRIMARY KEY keyword on a single column and defining multi-column keys.
- Add a section about FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES. Include a brief description of what it does. Provide a reference for both the REFERENCES keyword on a single column and defining multi-column foreign keys.
- Add a section about INDEX, including SPATIAL and FULLTEXT. (Should these have separate sections? It depends on how full the sections get.) It’s probably worth putting all the detailed information about indexes on the CREATE INDEX page and just link there from CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE.
- Create a section describing TEMPORARY tables.
- Write documentation for the various table options and the partition options. Some of these require more in-depth experience using MariaDB or MySQL.
- CREATE EVENT
- Explain the various SCHEDULE options thoroughly, possibly with examples.
- Explain the time units.
- Explain the ON COMPLETION, ENABLE, and DISABLE keywords.
- CREATE DATABASE
- Write documentation about CHARACTER SET and COLLATE.
This is just a sampling of a few easy places to get involved. I have more; ping me (shaunm) on IRC. Or leave a comment here.
Did you know you can easily convert a Mallard document into an EPUB file? It’s built right into Yelp Tools, the collection of documentation tools built on top of the core of the Yelp help viewer. Install yelp-tools from your package manager and run the following command in a directory containing Mallard page files:
yelp-build epub .
If you have Yelp customization stylesheets you use for the web, you can use them for your EPUB output too. Or you can create customizations to better fit the form factor of an e-book reader. Of course, as with everything from Yelp, the formatting is non-ugly by default.
Don’t forget that a Mallard document is just a collection of pages that link among themselves dynamically. If you want to publish an EPUB of only certain pages (for example, to provide your accessibility topics for people to read from another device), just limit it to only the pages you want. There’s no need to hand-edit a driver file.
For some reason, blogs.gnome.org doesn’t let me upload webm or ogv files. Go watch a video of searchable menus on Google+. Some notes on what’s going on:
- The initial menu items are not specified by Nautilus. The menu is populated with items based on tags in the Mallard help files.
- Start typing to search. This is searching on title and desc elements from the GNOME desktop help. The results are filtered to only include pages relevant to Nautilus. The scroll arrows showing momentarily as you type is an unfortunate glitch I hope to iron out.
- Click a topic and Yelp opens immediately to that topic.
- What’s more, Yelp knows that you arrived there from a menu item you got after searching in a menu, and offers a link at the top to perform a full text search on your search terms.
For the last year and a half, I’ve been slowly transitioning all the lighting in my house to high-power LED lamps. I love LEDs. They’re energy efficient and they light the room as if it were broad daylight. You don’t have to live with CFLs to get energy-efficient lighting.
The downside, of course, is the cost. LED lighting is still fairly new, and as with any new technology, it’s still fairly expensive. I definitely consider myself an early adopter. But just like computers and cell phones, I think the day will come when virtually everybody uses LED lighting. It’s just better.
I have a lot of recessed lighting in my house, including 30 six-inch canisters, and the LED replacements for these are about $50 per light. So I was really excited to discover that Cree holds a monthly contest to give away five CR6 lamps. I won the August contest, and my new lights have just arrived:
I had three of these in my house already, plus one similar light from another manufacturer. (If you’re in the US, Home Depot rebrands these lights under the EcoSmart brand.) With these bulbs, all of the overhead lighting in my kitchen is now LED.
Installation is really easy. First, remove the old bulb, the trim, and the brackets holding the socket in place. The trim is usually held on with a couple of springs, and the brackets with a single thumb screw.
(Funny story: Just after I took this picture, I accidentally dropped this CFL bulb on the floor and spent the next hour trying to make sure my kitchen is mercury-free. Just say no to fluorescent.)
Screw in the LED module, then push it into the canister. The prongs will hold it in place. If it feels loose against the ceiling, give it a slight clockwise turn to tighten it up.
That’s five more lights finished, thanks to Cree. Next on my list is the master bedroom.