Forcibly Set Array Size in Vala

Vala programmers probably already know that a Vala array is equivalent to a C array plus an integer size. (Unfortunately, the size is gint rather than size_t, which seems likely to be a source of serious bugs.) When you create an array in Vala, the size is set for you automatically by Vala. But what happens when receiving an array that’s created by a library?

Here is an example. I recently wanted to use the GTK function gdk_texture_new_for_surface(), which converts from a cairo_surface_t to a GdkTexture, but unfortunately this function is internal to GTK (presumably to avoid exposing more cairo stuff in GTK’s public API). I decided to copy it into my application, which is written in Vala. I could have put it in a separate C source file, but it’s nicer to avoid a new file and rewrite it in Vala. Alas, I hit an array size roadblock along the way.

Now, gdk_texture_new_for_surface() calls cairo_image_surface_get_data() to return an array of data to be used for creating a GBytes object to pass to gdk_memory_texture_new(). The size of the array is cairo_image_surface_get_height (surface) * cairo_image_surface_get_stride (surface). This is GTK’s code to create the GBytes object:

bytes = g_bytes_new_with_free_func (cairo_image_surface_get_data (surface),
                                    cairo_image_surface_get_height (surface)
                                    * cairo_image_surface_get_stride (surface),
                                    (GDestroyNotify) cairo_surface_destroy,
                                    cairo_surface_reference (surface));

The C function declaration of g_bytes_new_with_free_func() looks like this:

g_bytes_new_with_free_func (
  gconstpointer data,
  gsize size,
  GDestroyNotify free_func,
  gpointer user_data

Notice it takes both the array data and its size size. But because Vala arrays already know their size, Vala bindings do not contain a separate parameter for the size of the array. The corresponding Vala API looks like this:

public Bytes.with_free_func (owned uint8[]? data, DestroyNotify? free_func, void* user_data)

Notice there is no way to pass the size of the data array, because the array is expected to know its own size.

I actually couldn’t figure out how to pass a DestroyNotify in Vala. There’s probably some way to do it (please let me know in the comments!), but I don’t know how. Anyway, I compromised by creating a GBytes that copies its data instead, using this simpler constructor:

public Bytes (uint8[]? data)

My code looked something like this:

unowned uchar[] data = surface.get_data ();
return new Gdk.MemoryTexture (surface.get_width (),
                              surface.get_height (),
                              BYTE_ORDER == ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN ? Gdk.MemoryFormat.B8G8R8A8_PREMULTIPLIED : Gdk.MemoryFormat.A8R8G8B8_PREMULTIPLIED,
                              new Bytes (data),
                              surface.get_stride ());

But this code crashes because the size of data is unset. Without any clear way to pass the size of the array to the Bytes constructor, I was initially stumped.

My first solution was to create my own array on the stack, use Posix.memcpy to copy the data to my new array, then pass the new array to the Bytes constructor. And that actually worked! But now the data is being copied twice, when the C version of the code doesn’t need to copy the data at all. I knew I had to copy the data at least once (because I didn’t know how else to manually call cairo_surface_destroy() and cairo_surface_ref() in Vala, at least not without resorting to custom language bindings), but copying it twice seemed slightly egregious.

Eventually I discovered there is an easier way:

data.length = surface.get_height () * surface.get_stride ();

It’s that simple. Vala arrays have a length property, and you can assign to it. In this case, the bindings didn’t know how to set the length, so it defaulted to the maximum possible value, leading to the crash. After setting the length manually, the code worked properly. Here it is.

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