Broken desktop

This morning I woke up to find my desktop machine broken, with what seems to
be a hard disk problem. Although it’s quite weird, since e2fsck says the
partitions are ok, but even though I can boot, none of the boot files
(/etc/mtab, /etc/fstab, /etc/init.d...) seem to
be read. Now trying to recover my home directory, where yesterday’s work