Vuvuzela Filter with Ubuntu Lucid, PulseAudio & LADSPA – Help Needed

Everybody loves the World Cup 2010 in South Africa, especially we Germans since La Mannschaft showed the best football against Australia so far, with 616 passes and four brilliant goals in one football game! A few friends of mine and me enjoyed the game in my VDR/HDTV home cinema.

Ubuntu Lucid + ALSA + LADSPA + PulseAudio = Fail
However, it is very regrettable that the Vuvuzela destroys the typical stadium atmosphere. Because these trumpets have a very distinct noise frequency, they can be filtered out using LADSPA, and a few notch filters from the LADSPA VCF plugins at the resonance frequency and its harmonics. As soon as I succeed, I will publish the HOWTO.

Unfortunately, I was unable to use the LADSPA ALSA plugin together with PulseAudio under Ubuntu Lucid. That’s why I am asking you for help: I am unable to get even simple LADSPA filters to work with ALSA under Ubuntu Lucid. I tried to follow the ALSA wiki, and created a delay LADSPA filter in ~/.asoundrc:

pcm.ladspa {
type ladspa
slave.pcm "plughw";
path "/usr/lib/ladspa";
plugins [{
label delay_5s
input {
controls [ 0.8 0.3 ]

pcm.pladspa {
type plug
slave.pcm "ladspa";

However, whenever I use

aplay -D pladspa /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center.wav

it yields

ALSA lib pcm.c:2211:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM ladspa
aplay: main:608: audio open error: File exists

while for nonexistant PCMs, I get

ALSA lib pcm.c:2211:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM randomtest
aplay: main:608: audio open error: No such file or directory

Maybe somebody involved into PulseAudio and / or Ubuntu Lucid could tell me what’s going on? A related Ubuntu bug report doesn’t give any details. I am happily awaiting your ideas!

The PulseAudio Equalizer that allows direct integration of PulseAudio and LADSPA creates playback glitches on my machine.


Thanks for all your comments. Despire the fact that broadcasters now filter out some of the Vuvuzela noise (IMO they their filters are not strong enough), the following conclusions remain:

a) The most convincing filter prototype for notch filtering is used by sox, as pointed out by Yusuf. It is a simple biquadratic filter based on Robert Bristow-Johnson’s great Audio Cookbook, and yields great results! However, sox is a stand-alone application and does not seem to be integrated in any real-time processing library chain. However, you can use it in a loop-through fashion (mic input -> sox -> speaker output) as described in Yusuf’s blog. It also seems to include pulseaudio read/write routines, but I am not sure whether it can be used as a pulseaudio module – that does not seem to be the case.
b) The narrow band-reject filter prototypes used by LADSPA (“Mag’s Notch Filter”: “notch_iir” from, “VCF Notch Filter”, “vcf_notch” from are worse, at least I could not trim them to yield comparable results. Many links can be found in the comments to solutions involving LADSPA filters, the PulseAudio equalizer or some other solutions that yield very suboptimum results. However, they work in real-time.
c) It is very unfortunate that to my knowledge there is no way to specify arbitrary IIR filter prototypes for audio filtering on Linux, neither with LADSPA nor with Jack, PulseAudio or anything else.
d) We really lack a port of sox’s filters to LADSPA, PulseAudio, or some way to directly invoke sox’ great routines from the audio chain.
e) If you need LADSPA on Ubuntu 10.04, you have to use the Jack audio server, qjackctl for controlling it and jack-rack for inserting the filters (related links in the comments). Also, the audacity audio file editor allows to apply LADSPA filters. There does not seem to be any way to use them directly with ALSA (i.e. using asoundrc), as pointed out in the comments. However, you can use them as PulseAudio module, as the PulseAudio Equalizer does.

I now came up with an ugly solution that happens to work in my scenario: Route the unfiltered sound to a second computer which runs sox, and processes the sound as described by Yusuf under a). This only works if you have a high-quality sound card on your second computer, and I happen to own an old SB Live! 1024.

Further comments on Linux audio are appreciated!

How to check for a package/binary in a disk-friendly way? PackageKit — but how?

The nautilus-open-terminal extensions appends a menu item for opening Midnight Commander, but only if it is installed and the functionality is activated via GConf. Whether it is installed is currently checked via

g_find_program_in_path ("mc")

which does synchronous I/O and therefore blocks the UI when the disk spins up after standby (bug report). I see two obvious ways of fixing this:

  1. Only do the check once at startup. As a user, I’d hate this because if I installed Midnight Commander during runtime, I’d expect the menu item to show up immediatly.
  2. Use PackageKit instead of the above call for checking whether the midnight commander is installed

Clearly, it is preferrable to use PackageKit for such a task due to its caching facilities. But I need some help from the PackageKit experts out there: How are the names of the packages standardized, especially those not shipped with GNOME? The libpackagekit API description seems to suggest cryptic names like “hal;0.0.1;i386;fedora”. How can I specify the package name in a cross-distribution way? Wouldn’t we need a package-naming-spec, similar to the icon-naming-spec?


Some interesting comments:

  1. Oliver asks whether MC installs any .desktop file and proposes to check its extistence. hron84 points out that MC doesn’t.
  2. Richard Hughes who started PackageKit provides sample code that synchronously calls a certain PackageKit D-Bus method for checking whether a certain package is installed, and says that package naming is inconsistent between distros which I shouldn’t care about because they can patch my code.
  3. Xavier Claessens points out that PackageKit reads from disk too, and proposes to use an async. version of g_find_program_in_path().
  4. foo proposes to call a threaded version of g_find_program_in_path() and wait with the UI addition until it returns.
  5. Morten Wellinder says that package checking through the distro does not answer the question whether the “mc” binary is present, since a user could have installed it manually as well.

Regarding comments 3.+4.: The idea of an asynchronous version seems to be attractive, but the way Nautilus currently manages its extensions does not allow that easily because all extension menu items are added synchronously as Nautilus notices that the displayed files or the selection changed.

Regarding comment 5.: I agree that it seems to be somewhat wrong to ask the package management system whether a binary is present, but the idea behind it was that the package management can have an in-memory cache and track whether any packages have been installed since the last access such that no disk access is required at all. At least if the package management has been written with efficient file monitoring. On the other hand, the $PATHs are not cached and monitored. I also agree that manual installations of  packages are possible, but this is somewhat rare for a “low-level” package like mc.

That said, an interesting third solution may be: Add a GIO-powered g_find_program_in_path() variant that uses file monitoring to track changes to all directories in the $PATH, and only does as few disk accesses as possible. Of course, in general it does not make sense to keep the entire contents of the $PATHs in memory, but just add a hash table of all programs that were requested and whether they were present or not. I don’t know how reliable file monitoring is, though.

Back from the Dead ;)

During the last nine months, I have not been doing any GNOME development. After some rants about Nautilus multihead and GNOME’s kilobyte interpretation, I was busy with my studies (bachelor thesis, international advanced seminar on signal processing) and started doing sports (running, climbing) which I dreadfully had been disregarding before.

In the current spring break, it’s time for some development. I published some new nautilus-open-terminal releases and proposed some modifications on the thumbnail spec for improving the directory loading performance in Nautilus. Further plans include keybindings for extensions, better multihead support and (as always) UI polish according to user input.

Hardware is fun: Two HOWTOs

How to build a Do-It-Yourself beamer

Nowadays, everybody has a home theater. Most people pay lots of money and don’t have fun. We paid almost no money (300 €) and had lots of fun.

Signal source:

  1. Get an old and silent computer on eBay. VGA is enough. We got a HP Vectra VL400.
  2. Get a good and old PCI  sound card with 4.1 or 6.1 with proper Linux driver support. We got an SB Live!
  3. Use a VDR distribution like easyVDR, assuming you also want to watch DVB or simply use mplayer on the console with the frame buffer.
  4. Assuming you use VDR, hack FBTV to center your image on the framebuffer and do deinterlacing [patchset found via google]. Ensure that you have a 1:1 mapping between signal source (PAL TV or anamorphic DVDs in my case), and the screen pixels.


  1. Get an old overhead projector, 4000 ANSI lumen or more. Mine is a 3M 1750 with suboptimal but cheap halogen lamps.
  2. Get an old robust TFT monitor, and remove the panel from the electronics. Mine is a EIZO L365.
  3. Build a mask from cardboard in adequate size and put it on the OHP
  4. Build two parallel spacers from wood and put them between the cardborad and the TFT
  5. Get a tangential fan that can be built into a slot, and put it from the side between the panel and the OHP
  6. Get a cheap used but quality projection canvas. Don’t use eBay, usually they are to expensive. In Germany, you can use to find cheap ones. We got a Stumpfl AV 1:1 4 m^2. If you don’t find any, build it yourself. The most important thing would be a planar framing, and a proper canvas. In Central Europe, I can recommend for the frame, and for a molleton base layer followed by a reflective foil layer.


  1. Get an old but very good and defective audio amplifier on eBay. The Grundig V5000 is amazing, really! For 4.1 or 6.1, you’ll need two or three of them because in the 80s, they “just” needed Stereo.
  2. Know somebody with adequate electronic skills for repairing it, or repair it yourself.

Now: Have fun! A classical 80/20 solution: (even less than) 20% of the (financial) complexity and 80% of the optimum result – achievable with 10000 € or more.

Possibly related:

How to reconstruct broken mechanical components from some random hardware

  1. Be upset that knob X or handle Y is not produced or shipped anymore by any support in the world
  2. Find a skillful model building company which does prototype development – so they make also small batches (say, 1)
  3. Use a CAD tool like CATIA, and construct the mechanical component on your computer. Use a (digital) sliding caliper, and work at least to 1/10 mm.
  4. Give the CAD construction to the model builders who have CNCs or do rapid prototyping for you.

Now: Be totally happy that you got your component! :)

I hope this animated everybody who totally focused on software to also consider hardware recompilation. It’s fun, really :).

1 KB = 1024 Bytes? No, 1 KB = 1000 Bytes!

I read up on the history of the ancient convention that 1024 Bytes are called 1 Kilobyte. The problem with the convention is that it’s totally unintuitive unless you know it.

Unfortunately, Microsoft decided to use the following conventions and now the whole world uses it:

  • 1 KB = 1024 Bytes
  • 1 MB = 1024 * 1024 Bytes
  • 1 GB = 1024 * 1024 * 1024 Bytes.

Basically, that is a mish-mash of the ancient 70s convention of using kB for 1000 Bytes and KB for 1024 Bytes, and an abuse of the SI definitions of M and G prefixes. Actually, there is no mB or gB convention, although that would have been logic in the original convention. This is due to the fact that in the 70s – the age of large and expensive computers -, nobody believed that mass storage would actually be achievable at all.

Just assume you never used a computer, ancient UNIX tools or listened to a computer science lecture, or were taught anything about computers. Wouldn’t you expect that

  • 1 KB = 1000 Bytes
  • 1 MB = 1000 * 1000 Bytes
  • 1 GB = 1000 * 1000 * 1000 Bytes?

I filed a bug report against glib, with an historical analysis of the usage of all conventions and formalized nomenclatures in existence (slightly wrong) demanding that g_format_size_for_display() uses the latter conventions. This actually matches IEC recommendations.

One important side-effect of the conventions are:

  • K=1000: Memory sticks and main memory cells are made in powers-of-two – because the address line uses binary logic (i.e. powers-of-two). Historically, their size is advertized with K=1024 to get nice, non-fractional values. Below the 1 GB limit, they were probably advertized with kB rather than KB – but that shouldn’t be relevant anymore. With K=1000, on your computer screen memory (and memory sticks) shows up LARGER than advertized.
  • K=1024: Hard disks do not have such cell architectures, and they are advertized with K=1000. It was some kind of marketing trick in the very beginning, making the disk look larger than you expect, when you set K=1024 as old-fashioned “IT geek”. The effect is that with K=1024, on your computer screen hard disks look SMALLER than advertized.

Compare for yourself: Which of the two statements is positive, psychologically:

  • In contrast to Windows, under Linux my 70 GB hard disk has 70 GB as advertized, and my 1 GB memory sticks grow to 1,07 GB
  • Like under Windows, under Linux my 70 GB hard disk shrinks to 65,1 GB and my 1 GB memory sticks have 1 GB as advertized

Wouldn’t it also be nice to have a 100 MB file with 100 * 1000 Kilobytes? No more calculator I/O or right-clicking required for estimating the “actual” size in byte units!

I am mostly writing this blog entry to get some feedback from our users, rather than from programmers. Please also mention your background in your blog comments! Further concrete information regarding historic conventions and IEC and SI standards is available in the bug report mentioned above.

Also note that I do NOT demand to use the additional odd KiBi, MiBi, GiBi IEC convention that in fact make the current situation worse by using prefixes nobody knows, still defining Ki = 1024. My guess is that it was just introduced for offering an alternative for traditionalists who probably wanted “some convention with the beloved 1024”. But it is a non-traditional measurement prefix for a traditional concept, which makes it unattractive both for old(-fashioned) traditionalists and young pragmatists.


I removed the possibly intimidating roundhouse kicks against IT community, and somewhat out-of-context IRC log excerpts. Sorry if anybody felt insulted – some certainly did. You can find an interesting collection of opinions and personal backgrounds in the blog comments.

Nautilus multihead desaster

Today I tried out Nautilus with dual-head, i.e. two monitors that share a large virtual screen using XRandr. It was a desaster! Not XRandr – I love it! But it turns out that Nautilus miserably fails to be useful in a dual-head layout.

I already fixed Nautilus 2.24 to never move any icons outside the (virtual) screen area some time ago, but for dual-head we have horrible issues:

* Dead space is not detected, icons are put happily there

* The icons are not laid out per physical monitor, but per virtual screen. You can easily have icons that are “shared” between two monitors. While the actual icon layout is a bit tricky in the case of overlapping monitor regions, in the non-overlapping case we should perfectly be able to do nice per-monitor icon layouts.

* When there is a loading error for a file launched from the desktop, it is displayed in the middle of the (virtual) screen, and not in the middle of the monitor you used to open the location.

* The first navigation window is always opened on the monitor where the last navigation window was closed, even when you open it through the panel on a different monitor (patch pending release team approval).

* We don’t begin the icon layout on the monitor that you right-click to select “clean up by name”

* No background image awareness, i.e. the background image is just centered across monitors, even if it fits on the first monitor. Ideally, we’d have per-monitor backgrounds, of course.

* … any more issues you report, assuming you actually use GNOME in a dual monitor setup …

Now, a serious question: Is our user base so small, that we just receive bug reports evry once in a while, and not constantly? Are our users masochistic or unprofessional enough to tolerate this in a desktop environment that is supposed to be used in business environments?

While I frequently use beamers in combination with my laptop, I miserably failed to use them with Linux and used Windows for my (university) beamer needs from day two on. An educated guess is that almost every GNOME user out there does the same and uses Linux for non-serious business only. This is somewhat frustrating, as we are still trying to deliver a robust and business grade desktop environment – aren’t we? Note that this is NOT a rant about XRandr, which is really, really neat. It’s just we who suck!


Some comments suggest that some of our users feel insulted, and rectify themselves that they actually filed bugs, gave up on us or something along those lines. It is interesting how some people describe their use-cases, griefs and work-arounds. I love how everybody cares about quality, files bug reports and kicks us in the arse when things are broken. I certainly did not write this to insult anybody. You have to understand that I somehow feel like an innkeeper who thinks that he has some good wine in his cellar, realizing that half his wine from a certain country is decomposed.

Before / After



Note how the regular grid layout is destroyed by the long file name, which can make its row very large.


   After (1/2)           After (2/2)

Note how the grid layout is preserved, while the whole filename is still visible as the file is selected or hovered.

Take that five year old bug report! Thanks to the incredible Pango grand master Behdad. Many play the Banjo, but only few master the Pango.


I received lots of feedback. Many appreciations were given, some usability concerns were raised and some people just didn’t like the change. Therefore, I added GConf keys that allow you to control in detail (i.e. for all zoom levels, and for the desktop) how many lines of text you want.

Another proposal was that file extensions should never be truncated. This will be implemented as Pango supports it. There is also an interesting recent user request to ellipsize file names depending on the other displayed file names (assuming you have “alongfilename-01-continuin-hereg.jpg”, “alongfilename-02-continuing-here.jpg” the result is supposed to be “along…e-01-…ere..jpg”, “along…e-02-…ere..jpg”.

GVFS programmer wanted

Nautilus 2.23.5(.1) [shipped with GNOME 2.23.5] has tab support,  an eject button next to mounted volumes in the sidebar, and a “restore” feature for the trash that figures out the location where a file came from automatically before moving it out of the trash.

Unfortunately, moving files out of the trash in general takes a very long time with GVFS due to a bug. We would be very pleased if you volunteered to fix the bug:

The future of GNOME

Since everybody nowadays comments on the future of GNOME/GTK+, I’d also like to add my two cents – although more briefly than others.

In short, I think we’ve reached our objectives and should polish GNOME 2 ’til doomsday.

3.0? No!

As of writing, I see no reason for delivering a (long-term) API/ABI-incompatible GNOME 3.0 or GTK+ 3.0, and many have written the same before. I’m just repeating it here to make sure that everybody, including the kind-hearted individuals who try to force a GSEAL’ed GTK+ to make it more clean, are aware of the massive opposition against this plan.

C is ugly as hell and does not support public/procted/private classes. Therefore, no C programmer can really mind ugly exposed internals. Adding setters and getters is a in principle a good idea, but there is no reason to break working applications that access data exposed in GTK+ structs. Maybe a GSEAL() fan could tell me how third-party subclasses that are derived from GTK+ stock widgets can access protected member variables? If you just expose getter/setter functions, everybody can access the internals, and you could have put it into the object’s struct anyway.

Status Quo: Conservative + Boring

The current GNOME and GTK+ development clearly “stalls” or “stagnates”. From the point of a developer this sounds horrible. However, you could also formulate that positively and call it “solid”. We’ve come a long way. Since GNOME 2.0, our target was to deliver a non-obtrusive, simple and useful desktop environment. We’ve done our best, and people love it. I know many people who use GNOME because it’s simple and clean.

Radical Concepts => New Project

We created a successful brand by radically sticking to one strategy: Simplicity. The current traditional desktop approach without any fancy database concepts is very successful and is used by many people.

The brand will be damaged if we throw in half-baked complex interaction concepts. Like many of you my dear readers, I love the idea to use the computer as a personal assistant or secretary, and I’ve also thought how it could work in such a scenario. However, at least radical concepts (“GNOME Online Desktop”, “everything is organized as database”, etc.) should clearly be put forward outside the GNOME project, at least until they are mature and proven in a testing environment with average people instead of “innovation” fanboys. “Innovation”, after all, is just a buzzword, and in science they often just re-invent old concepts. I’m sure that the scientists among you will agree with this.

It may sound a bit disappointing that we’ve become conservative, but that’s the typical life cycle of people in western civilization, why shouldn’t it also apply to software projects with well-defined objectives?

If I were at GUADEC…

I’d walk around and tell people to find more useful projects than wasting their time with adding tabs to each single GNOME application. Maybe the semmingly true rumors that one or another GNOME fellow might be somewhat lunatic (panties, anybody?) inspired theprogrammers who are implementing this.

One initial aspect: Calumn is totally right that tab implementations at application level are an effect of the lack of platform MDI support. We implement it at application level where we need solutions today and tomorrow, rather than the day after tomorrow. However, it is not yet clear whether tabs are useful at all for 90% of the applications.

Why tabs for Nautilus (and web browsers, spreadsheet, …) are a good idea

Let me briefly explain why I added tab support to Nautilus: It helps people with their workflow. Today, I used it to tidy up my document folders. I could use it to navigate between file operation source and destination folders extremely quickly, using the keyboard and ctrl-x, ctrl-v, and ctrl-page-up/down. I was two times as fast as with a console (where you need auto-completion), and five times as fast as with a mouse

Tab support for browser-like file managers is a good idea, because people know how to use the tab concept properly since it has been invented for web browser. It is also useful for spreadsheets, where you often compare multiple documents and calculations. It is also useful for having multiple conversations at once, because each of them is linear, and you can use the tabs to switch between losely-associated linear tasks or documents.

Why tabs for media players are a bad idea

On the other hand, tab support in Totem is ridiculous. Somebody must have put LSD into the GUADEC social event food, and everybody now feels like Syd Barrett and his Lucifer Cat!

Regarding Totem: It is already perfectly doing what it should do: Play a song or video, and let me queue more of them. One song or video at once. How can I watch two videos at once?

Why you should think first, and implement features afterwards (i.e. gcalctool tabs)!

Let me exemplify this regarding gcalctool:

Even my non-programmable pocket calculator (Casio FX-991ES) has more features than this non-noticeable desktop calculator. Amongst others, it can not deal with symbolic calculations, complex numbers, nature constants, variables. It does not even have a calculation history as I mentioned in a comment in Scott James’ blog. This is a shame! Before you implement such a craptastic feature, think about how it will be used! Again: gcalctool does not have any calculation history. This is as if I implemented tabs in Nautilus without implementing the back/forward button before, so you had to switch to a new tab each time you want to display a new folder.

Now I’ll do something useful and learn for my function theory exam.

You talented developers at GUADEC should also do something useful and fix the GTK+ tree view mouse interaction.

All-Clear :o)

It turns out that the tab implementations were just mockups. Have fun at GUADEC!